Concrete corrosion by deicing salt

Concrete corrosion by deicing salt
Inventions of the 21-st Century
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Typical look of concrete test specimen chloride penetration after drying. An abundance of salt crystals is visible. The surface of concrete is flaky with easily removable aggregates’ particles. 
Chloride penetration KALMATRON® test specimen after completion specimens dried. This is a solid insoluble film of Tetracalcium Alumino-ferrite deposits, a subproduct of KF-A reaction with chlorides.The surface of concrete is solid with substantial structural integrity.  
Performance of 5 Kg/m3 KALMATRON® KF-A in Mix 7 is the best for resistance to chloride permeability and greater over 5 times than control specimens with Silica Fume. A performance oriented test, which simulates the in-service conditions more closely, allows us to observe the advantages of trail specimens in chloride permeability, as shown on pictures below. 
Deicing of concrete trafficable areas is known as a measure of the safety that extremely corrosive to the concrete. On a pictures below shown surfaces of concrete parking lot corroded after one winter with partial loss of concrete sacrificial layer. 

Most of known concrete protecting technologies from salt corrosion are based on increasing of concrete superficial density by more solid coatings or impregnations, where thermal compatibility and chemical bonding are still questionable. As it known, mechanical bonding is effective under stable hydro-thermal conditions.

Highest effectiveness has been achieved by reviving of bonding ability of underneath concrete by spray of KALMATRON® KF-G and relining after by the concrete containing KALMATRON® KF-A or its liquid version K1OO®.

The charts (A) at right shows by 5x less chlor-ions penetration through the concrete with KF-A (Mix 7). More important is the concrete with KF-A doesn't accumulate salts deposits (C) unlike any other concrete does (B) as shown at right. 

Examples of Concrete Protection from corrosion caused by deicing salt
Examples of Concrete Protection from corrosion caused by deicing salt
Concrete surface is crumbled on the depth of 3/4" or 18 mm by deicing chlorides  during of 1 winter.
Deicing chlorides accumulated undo the layer of topping and  misplaced it by the force of  crystalline overgrows.
"Turn Right" sign embedded into the concrete has been weakened by salts and destroyed by  delamination wear.
Blistering and delaminating wear are the most common time defects of concrete surfaces exposed to aggressive conditions especially such as teratmenrs by deicing salt. 

Our colleague in Lithuania Mr. Kęstutis Macijauskas , engineer, provided  many projects with KALMATRON® KF-A. Recently we've received pictures from him about present conditions of parking lot and the road built over 5 years ago in Klaipeda near Baltic Sea.

Seen spots of white deposits is a result of maritime atmospheric precipitations and regular deicing treatments. After 5 years of heavy traffic the concrete has no defects of deicing salt deterioration, freeze-thaw corrosion, and tire's wear.                
Excessive concrete abrasive wearing caused by the traffic and by the annual cycles of freeze-thaw concrete mass loss and deicing salt treatment.
Massive hydrogen blistering of concrete surface after first winter. It has low abrasion resistance by the dusting wear. 
Placement of concrete under the rain is officially stupid.  
This is the Baltic' Sea-Port Klaipeda where largest industrial concrete ramp for loading of train refrigerator was annually under repair because of severe combination of low temperatures, sea-salts, and every day surface cleaning by mix of sand and deicing salt. 

The floor of the ramp is always covered with the slurry of fish fat, dirt, salts and trafficked by the forklifts.  As it shown on pictures, tracks after forklifts still could be seen even after several times everyday cleaning. 

Last time that ramp was repaired in 2006 by relining with ordinary concrete mix containing 7.5 Kg/m3 of KALMATRON® KF-A.  After 7 years there is no a trace of corrosive disintegration, abrasion blistering, and hydro-thermal cracks. 
Below are the fragments of the most important structural elements after 5 years. 

Remarkably, observers didn't find inter structural salt deposits causing forceful 

       crystalline overgrows after first winter. 

       This is a perfect correlation with (C) above.  

Obviously, approximation of concrete matrix' isotropy by KALMATRON® KF-A results in highest concrete durability.

   Dark color of concrete ramp resulted by deposits from the 
   tires and contamination by the petroleum' related sediments.

   Non trafficable part of concrete parking lot with 
   the same texture is clean. Therefore, there is no  
   a sign of concrete carbonization after 5 years.    
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